Enhanced eBooks: Why They Haven’t Taken Off, How They Could, and Whether They Should

If you buy an ebook today, odds are you won’t find much that you couldn’t find in the print copy. During my current eBook internship with an academic publisher, while creating eBooks for publication, I primarily work on creating working hyperlinks and footnotes/endnotes; incorporating figures, tables, and boxes; fixing the CSS (styles) template; and creating separate guides for Epub and Mobi formats. With a trade fiction publisher, I have no doubt that my job would be less complicated.

If you know about the cool capabilities of ePub3, you might be surprised that publishers aren’t doing more to enhance eBooks to make them distinct from their print products; you might even attribute this dearth of experimentation with conservative thinking or lazy complacency. But the true reason stems from the same problem that most publishing issues come from these days: Amazon. Specifically, its use of the Mobi (.prc), AZW, and KF8 formats for ebooks.

What can these formats do with ebooks? Reflowable content, fixed width layout, indexing, and some reader-interactive features like annotations and bookmarks (see here for more). Most important for Amazon’s purposes, these formats can only be read on Kindles, Kindle Fire, or Kindle Previewer, and they can be compressed better than regular epubs—something probably very important for saving on server space when you’re selling millions upon millions of eBooks.

Yet they can’t support embedded audio such as music or narration, video, animation, and interactive elements. Apple’s ePub3 format supports all of these features, and as such many books, particularly children’s books, have enhanced ebook features or are even sold as interactive apps on Apple’s App Store. But because the majority of publishers’ ebooks sell on Amazon while a small minority buy iBooks—I’m having trouble tracking down the specific statistics, but my e-publishing professor at Emerson estimated Amazon’s portion at 75–85% and Apple at less than 10%—it does not make much monetary sense to develop enhanced features when so many of your readers are on gen-1 Kindles, Paperwhites, or other e-ink devices.

The Potential for Change?

According to one TechRadar author, the Kindle Fire Phone could spell the beginning of changes to Amazon’s low-tech policy. The majority of 18-34 year olds own an ereader, but 32% of young adults feel that reading digital books on a tablet is just as good as reading on dedicated ereaders. For this author, the next step seems to be moving from tablets to the large (4.7 inch) screens of smartphones, where it makes sense to add exciting new enhancements to books, such that they compete with the other interactive apps on your phone.

But can ebooks still do just fine on phones without these enhancements, so long as they’re easy to access?

One of the first companies to jump on the smartphone-as-reader idea was Oyster, the “Netflix for Books,” which received a ton of attention and accolades from the beginning. This Wired piece goes into loving detail about the thoughtfully designed Oyster interface, which “is a distinctly digital experience, and yet, it doesn’t feel soulless or straining in the way reading on a screen often can be.” Now the company has moved on to desktop apps, where their goal is reportedly to make books appear more like “reading a blog post, or an article from the New York Times or Medium,” according to Oyster’s CEO.

On the one hand, blog posts and articles rely on features like interactivity, hyperlinks, embedded videos, etc., so the comparison might leave an opening for enhanced ebooks to make a splash just as they might fit in with smartphones. On the other hand, regular ebooks seem to also be doing just fine on desktops, as readers probably don’t expect bells and whistles with their ebooks at this point. Instead, Oyster relies on a cool, understated presentation to make it easier for the reader to immerse himself or herself into the text.

Should Publishers Try to Improve On What A Book Is?

The ultimate question is, should publishers do more to make ebooks better, now that ebooks are plateauing in sales after years of explosive growth? Or would adding this interactivity undermine the principle of immersing oneself into a fictional world or a famous person’s life story, turning books from a unique experience into just another app competing for one’s time? Has that transition already happened?

I personally love to immerse myself in literature, and I can’t express the negative effects and limited returns on enhancements better than this blog post does, as the author notes that books should not be treated as movies with DVD extras when all that matters is the narrative. And ereader devices are actually enabling positive reading habits, according to the above Techradar article: “those who read both physical and ebooks get through about 50% more than those who only use one format rather than both – about 27 books a year on average versus 18.” So by this logic, we should not rock the boat by making ebooks into something they’re not.

Furthermore, it’s unclear whether enhanced ebooks would create enough of a return on their investment. For better or worse, readers have become used to a lower price point with ebooks than with print books, with the argument being made that they should be cheaper do the lack of overhead costs that come from print books. If publishers begin to create enhanced ebooks and charge higher prices for them, there is a very real possibility that sales would drop due to readers being uninterested in paying for extra features. Just as DVD sales for movies are dropping as viewers move to subscription services, publishers need to be careful that they don’t drive all of their readers to renting books with Oyster and Amazon instead of purchasing them.

When Enhancements Might Be Relevant or Exciting to Readers: Pros and Cons

Despite the many problems with the enhanced ebook model and the comforting notion that staying the course is best for the industry, I believe that publishers should be constantly searching for new avenues of innovation. For this reason, I’m going to spitball some candidates for enhanced ebooks and weigh the pros and cons of my terrible ideas. 

Public domain and classic titles: When you buy (in print) The Complete Works of William Shakespeare or the Norton Critical Edition of Alice in Wonderland, you buy them with the assumption that you’ll be getting detailed footnotes, biographical information, analytical essays, and other supplementary materials: the original enhanced books. Still, most students today turn to Sparknotes or equivalent sites instead, when publishers could try to keep readers in-book with supplementary material embedded into their ebooks: explanations and analysis of key/confusing scenes, author interviews if available or relevant, hyperlinks to online essays, and so forth.

  • Pros: Public domain titles means no author advance or royalties. A large demand for these titles from students/schools guarantees a return on investment. A wealth of academic material from which to choose. Academic material like this doesn’t usually allow for much immersion anyway, so the enhancements don’t hurt the reading experience for most.
  • Cons: Plenty of competitors who could release an ebook without enhancements for a cheaper price. Teachers who want their kids to only buy print limiting the cost-effectiveness of this effort.

New editions of major bestsellers: When publishers reprint successful titles, it’s a no-brainer. They slap a new cover design on top, maybe make one or two editorial tweaks at the author’s behest, and add a new introduction to the front explaining why the book is so amazing/ a cultural phenomenon. And maybe that’s all they need to do to consistently sell the book on their backlist. But maybe some readers will be interested in “DVD Extras” after all for major titles like Harry Potter or Hunger Games. Add embedded author interviews or old drafts showing the different fates of characters or original plot points (i.e. Did you know that Arthur Weasley was supposed to die in the snake scene of Order of the Pheonix?). Take those book club questions you find at the end of some books and intersperse them throughout the text, while inviting readers to use the Amazon Public Note function to express their views on key scenes. Make it more of a text for diehard community fans to revisit the franchise and get a behind-the-scenes look of the author’s writing process. Or, with nonfiction bestsellers, add real-life interviews and videos of relevant events.

  • Pros: Getting passionate readers to re-invest in the book (series) and encouraging fandom. Creates interesting tidbits for would-be authors and fan fiction writers to explore. Again, guaranteed sales due to the book’s proven popularity, and no fears of ruining the immersion for those who have already experienced the narrative.
  • Cons: People don’t buy books twice; the people buying the enhanced edition won’t want this information as they are reading it for the first time. Fandoms have their own sites for discussing the book (Tumblr, etc.). As Mr. Bjarnason mention above, people don’t want book extras in their books; they want them on author websites, and dedicated fans will find these tidbits there on their own.

Choose Your Own Adventure Books: Why should some of the coolest enhancements like interactivity, embedded videos, and Easter Eggs be reserved for children’s books, where enhanced ebooks have made the most headway? I would love to see CYOA books make a resurgence by taking advantage of ebook capabilities to augment the experience of stepping into dangerous worlds. Imagine making a terrible choice and watching your own grisly death to accompany the text? Or, when the text shows you coming to a fork in the road, you choose based on an illustration of the landscape and tap your finger on the picture of your path rather than on a hyperlink? If you don’t want to invest in writing a bunch of new CYOA books, simply acquire the hundreds of books written in the last few decades and find artists and programmers to supplement the old material.

  • Pros: Avoiding editorial costs with a wealth of material to choose from to market to new readers. A subgenre that lends itself to visualization as a means of immersing oneself in strange new worlds or terrifying scenarios.
  • Cons: Books are about visualizing the world for yourself, not about having it drawn or shown to you; you can always go watch a sci-fi/horror movie for that. The potential that these enhancements would be very expensive to implement or troubleshoot.

Cookbooks: Why buy a cookbook, especially an e-cookbook, when you can just go on Allrecipes.com or some equivalent for instant access? What if these ebooks come with audio, where the famous chef/author of the cookbook reads the recipe to you as you make your preparations? A lot of children’s books have audio to help kids read along with the text, while cookbooks could benefit from a hands-free experience. Perhaps the e-cookbook could also come with embedded videos of the recipes being prepared.

  • Pros: A way of revitalizing cookbooks and taking advantage of the talented cook you have representing the book to improve the experience.
  • Cons: It would be very expensive to videotape and narrate the cookbook along with all the other fact-checking and testing recipes that has to happen, so I don’t know if this is feasible. It could also make the cookbook too much like other websites where people don’t have to pay in the first place, inviting unflattering comparisons.

Conclusions

I don’t know if some of these ideas have already been implemented, or if some have been tested and proven to be too difficult or costly, or if these ideas show innovative thinking or just ignorance. But I do think it’s both enjoyable and important to test out new ideas that can draw more people into the reading community, while also remaining wary of diluting the immersive reading experience.

Do you think books need to evolve to survive, or just the platforms we read them on? Do you think publishers should be experimenting or sticking with profitable, easy-to-make ebooks? Feel free to throw your two cents into the comments, and thanks for reading!

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Are Publishers “The Good Guys” or “The Bad Guys”? (Part 1)

Depends on who you ask.

As an editor, I obviously want publishers to succeed for the sake of my future employment and good literature, but I also want to feel like the people I work for are on the right side of things. What’s more, I believe that this reaction isn’t unique or surprising: almost all book lovers have passionate reactions to the book-making process once they get a glimpse behind the curtain, myself included. So when it comes to Amazon, libraries, self-publishing, indie bookstores, and so many other controversial issues, most people tend to come out passionately on one side or the other, oftentimes lambasting my future colleagues.

In the face of criticism from the people who buy our products, publishers should not be afraid to question their business decisions; do we truly know best in terms of our business model, or are we limited by conservative thinking that hurts our authors, distributors, partners, and readers? This post will attempt to lay out and flesh out the controversial issues that the publishing industry faces today, why these issues matter, what the general public thinks about publishing houses under this specific lens, and whether or not we as publishers should feel righteous, defensive, worried, ashamed, or any other feelings about the issue.

This series has a lot to cover, so this post will focus mainly on issues surrounding Amazon and self-publishing.

Amazon vs Hachette

If the continued feud between Hachette and Amazon has taught us anything, it’s that publishing houses’ PR departments will have a major impact on the profitability of publishing in the coming years. As both parties haggle over future pricing of eBooks, Hachette has harnessed the power of bestselling authors like James Patterson and Stephen Colbert to protest Amazon’s purported shady business practices and gain public support for its books. The power of this practice can best be seen in the success of Edan Lepucki’s debut novel California: Stephen Colbert announced on his show that the first-time author would be destroyed by Amazon’s undermining of Hachette titles during negotiations, and suddenly her book became a surprise bestseller.

Meanwhile, Amazon has released a couple of open letters to authors and readers that attempt to show the distributor as looking out for writers and buyers more than the publishers themselves by emphasizing their superior e-royalties for Kindle Select authors. The distributor then argued that everyone wins if Amazon can just price eBooks at bargain prices, since the increased number of sales leads to more money on average for all parties—all of which plays to the idea beloved by self-publishing enthusiasts and unpublished writers that publishers are greedy, uncreative misers who don’t deserve anyone’s support.

Economically, Amazon’s argument isn’t as sound as they’d have you believe. An illuminating New Yorker article quotes literary agent Brian DeFiore, who has in fact criticized publishers for low ebook royalties in the past, as being highly skeptical of Amazon’s plan to lower prices:

Amazon doesn’t quantify what lower e-book prices would mean for sales of physical copies of the same books. Authors who work with traditional publishers like Hachette tend to make more, per copy, from hardcover sales than from e-books. If cheaper e-books draw people away from hardcovers, that could hurt these authors financially…If lower e-book prices were to eventually destroy the market for physical books entirely—or even shrink it enough so that it wouldn’t make financial sense for traditional booksellers to publish them—that would help Amazon consolidate its power, which would ultimately be dangerous for authors.

The article does go on to mention that authors don’t care as much about financial gains if they can increase their readership, and that lowering book prices has been proven to lead to this eventuality. That’s part of the appeal of the self-publishing model—that authors ignored by traditional publishers have garnered huge followings through their own marketing efforts and more reasonable prices for readers. And yet, connected to the earlier point, these authors would have to place all of their hopes on one digital sales channel, whereas traditional publishers offer print sales to many channels (including Amazon) but provide reduced royalties due to costs like overhead.

Verdict: Publishers are always going to put print first in the climate Amazon has created, where its tantalizing digital business model and loss-leader pricing would give them an eventual monopoly that makes print books hard to sell for a profit. Issues like author advances, the advanced marketing and respectability that traditionally published books hold over self-published works, and the need to keep their own ebooks from undermining print sales are valid concerns that Amazon and its supporters ignore too readily.

At the same time, I do find the idea of paying authors more than 25% for ebooks compelling. Various factors have contributed to most authors making less and less on print sales, so it would be a sign of good faith to authors to increase royalties for e-sales after they have resisted the temptation of Amazon’s attempted bribery to stand behind them. But my area of expertise is not economics, so I don’t know if that is viable or naive thinking. Overall, though, my “good guy” award goes to the publishers in this category, and the “bad guy” award goes to Amazon.

Amazon’s Wild West vs. Publishers’ Literary Canon

Should publishers decide what literature should reach the bookshelves of everyday readers, or should readers’ average score out of 5 stars and bestseller lists decide? In a triumphant critique of traditional publishers in the face of rising self-publishing sales, Smashwords founder Mark Coker mocks the old idea that, “publishers alone possessed the wisdom to determine if a writer deserved passage through the pearly gates of author heaven. Writers were taught that publishers had an inalienable right to this power, and that this power was for the common good of readers.”

Coker’s argument could be that self-published novels are chosen solely on the merit of the storytelling, whereas with publishing houses readers are at the mercy of the tastes and prejudices of their editors. Of course, the most successful self-published novels don’t just succeed due to quality, but also due to skillful marketing, SEO optimization, and Amazon promotions, done either by the author herself or by her hired team. Still, he would likely argue that authors can allow readers to directly validate the enjoyability and skill of their manuscripts, rather than need a stodgy editor or literary agent to act as the solitary judge and gatekeeper.

So should traditional publishers have this power? As I said at the beginning, depends on who you ask. Many might argue that editors have more authority than regular readers to judge which stories have merit and which do not, as it’s their job, and hopefully their passion, to think critically about what people will like in their stories. And the success of certain imprints, specifically ones that generate texts in one genre or format (i.e. poetry), shows that readers have grown to trust the discerning eye of certain editors and the authors they’ve chosen to represent the publishing house. This is essentially the argument for literary canon—that publishers have discovered and nurtured the Hemingways and Fitzgeralds of the past and that they protect posterity by raising books like The Goldfinch over popular bestsellers like Fifty Shades of Gray.

Yet with each self-published bestseller that achieves acclaim after being rejected by publishers, these authors prove that the judgment of publishers and agents aren’t infallible. And the recent controversy at the Book Expo America, where publishers revealed a startling lack of diversity in their acquired children’s books, is a problem that extends far beyond one genre. Literary canon has always been homogenous, primarily dominated by white men and more recently white women, and the publishing scene similarly demonstrates a disparity of representation beyond a token few. Some argue that self-publishing offers the solution to the whitewashed literary sphere that publishing houses have engendered. Others argue that publishers simply need to get past the perception that multicultural books won’t sell or that POC characters can only fit within a certain mold. The fact is, publishing houses lack diversity in hiring and executives, and that engenders a culture that ignores diversity and pretends that narratives with diverse characters are inaccessible to everyday readers.

Verdict: Amazon is an incredible resource for authors, and publishers have to try to offer services and rates to compete with Amazon. I would argue that they do, especially because Amazon has thus far failed to make a major impact in their own attempts to get print books into bookstores and homes. And publishers, teamed with the literary agent barrier, do have a system in place of finding quality literature from the masses of manuscripts published every year. But the lack of diversity is a serious issue that we cannot continue to brush under the rug or place on the shoulders of a few authors of color. I personally love reading about people of different cultures, races, species, and worlds (I’m sure you can guess sci-fi is my favorite genre) and don’t understand why those narratives should ever be excluded for reasons of supposed “inaccessibility.”  So yes, this is one area that will give me no small amount of guilt if my future publishing house perpetuates this problem rather than rectifies it, and publishers will start to lose readers and money to self-publishing if they do not rectify their small-minded acquisition strategy. I unfortunately have to give the good guy rating to Amazon here, though if big publishers get their act together diversity-wise they can easily stop being the bad guy and be a force for good in literature.

Monopoly: Amazon v Apple/Big 5 Edition

I won’t go too far into the details of this case, as there are several articles that describe them for us. But the dilemma of the case is straightforward: Amazon buys books for wholesale prices from publishers and sells them for less than they paid so that no one can possibly compete with their prices, creating a monopoly supposedly in the name of consumer rights. Thus, consumers buy major publishers’ books for cheap and then stay to buy Kindle Select books that make up the profits for Amazon. Apple and the publishers colluded to create an agency model where they determine the price of books and Amazon has no say in changing it, which would drive prices up and allow other distributors like Apple to actually compete in the ebook market, but hurt consumers.

Now, the big publishers and Apple have all settled, essentially admitting guilt for their crimes, and public opinion is falling into two predictable lines: slimy Apple and stupid old publishers finally got what they deserve for sticking it to consumers, and self-publishing will take big publishing’s place; or evil Amazon is sitting laughing on the corpses of its competitors while books lose all cultural value and the industry collapses in the spirit of “competition.”

Verdict: It’s difficult to find a proper answer, despite how biased I am toward publishers. First off, it’s perfectly reasonable to ridicule the “it’s not a monopoly because Amazon did it first” defense as elementary school level, and what they did was illegal, even if Amazon has created a climate where only a united front could win against it. Still, Amazon’s current removal of pre-orders and speedy delivery for Hachette titles, and its more drastic action of removing all of Macmillan’s titles in 2010 for switching to the agency model, shows just how terrible Amazon can be to anyone who dares to ask for fair rates.

 I’m of the personal belief that companies like Wal-Mart and Amazon that destroy all small business competition, terrorize its suppliers, treat their employees like shit, and then offer insanely low prices to boost its popularity are horrible; still, what the publishers did was illegal, and gave moral high ground to the company when they should have colluded to have the DOJ go after Amazon instead. I’m giving the “Bad Guy” rating to both parties here, though the worse one clearly goes to Amazon.

Conclusion

It’s difficult to paint Amazon as the “bad guys” when they are the number one buyer of both print and electronic books for most publishers and universalize the accessibility of titles throughout the U.S. and the world to increase sales, and they have ended the stigma of “vanity publishing” in favor of empowering any entrepreneurial author to pursue his or her dreams. Major publishers are rightfully appealing to the public to make Amazon maintain the value of books and curtail its predatory pricing, but they are also completely dependent upon the distributor at this point and could not abandon it without putting their entire business at risk. In some ways, Amazon’s ruthlessness has forced publishing as an industry to adapt more quickly than it might have to the digital age, while in other ways those adaptations have hurt the publishing industry and the authors it represents by turning books a cheap business commodity. Thus, publishers have abandoned any risk-taking in favor of guaranteed money-makers from celebrity biographies to big name (white) authors’ sequel novels. So the question becomes whether publishers and Amazon will continue to fight or manage to reach an accord, since right now neither side can safely say they are entirely in the right.

Final Score: 1 Good Guy and 2 Bad Guys Each

I threw out a lot of controversial stuff and possibly criticized my future bosses while roasting the “enemy,” so hopefully I succeeded in being fair. But if you think I was too hard or soft on either side, feel free to speak your mind in the comments for some spirited debate!

For the next post on my publishing conscience I’ll talk about publishers’ relationship with independent bookstores and libraries. Spoiler alert: like today, there’s some good and some bad.

Thanks for reading!

How To Prepare for a Publishing Job While Living Outside of New York City

Just like you might have to move to Detroit to design cars or Silicon Valley to work for major computer companies, you may end up having to move to New York City or Boston to track down book publishing jobs and internships with major publishing houses. You can find small or independent publishers, academic presses, and isolated imprints of New York-based houses sporadically throughout the country, but those positions can be competitive, or seldom are open for interviews due to lower turnover rates than you’ll find in NYC. That means before you can get a job with that small publisher in your hometown, it might make sense to apply for jobs where more are available before bringing your expertise back home.

So does that mean that after you graduate college, you should just move to New York and hope you can find a job? Maybe, but before you take such a big step unprepared, there are a lot of things you can do to improve your job chances before ever setting foot in New York City.

This post will cover various resume-building experiences you can attain at college, graduate school, or from the comfort of your own home, experiences that will broaden your publishing expertise and before applying for paid positions or even internships.

College/Personal Experience

Literary Magazines: Lit mags are a great place for any budding editor to get his or her start, especially because of the thousands across the U.S. many can be found on college campuses. Future editors need practice reading a lot of slush stories to train their literary eye for what is or isn’t considered “good enough” for publication—or, to put it bluntly, train yourself to say “NO” firmly in the face of mediocrity and only accept the best—in case you ever have to read unsolicited (“slush pile”) manuscripts and make recommendations to your superior. Future marketers and publicists, meanwhile, can receive training and experience in campus and community outreach when it comes to soliciting submission, selling your magazine, and organizing events.

More official literary magazines run by professional staff will give you a stronger entry on your resume, as well as opportunities for mentoring and informational interviews about next steps for your career. Student-run publications, meanwhile, allow ambitious students to garner early experience in leadership and management roles. Ultimately, this extracurricular showcases your passion for stories and writing to future internship coordinators and employers, so don’t pass up the chance if you’re still in college or if a professional mag is nearby.

College Newspapers: If you’re interested in working at a print/digital magazine or newspaper, this experience is a major asset that will open a lot of doors for you. Several positions ask for anywhere from 3-10 writing clips, so save your best articles for job applications, or polish them up and post them on a LinkedIn account. Acting as a student editor also shows that you can work in a fast-paced environment and have a record of meeting rigid deadlines. Even if you’re more interested in book publishing, you can still use this experience to trumpet your skills in copy-editing, personnel management, and working as part of a team or with superiors/underlings depending on your place within the organization.

Bookselling: Whether you track down a position with an independent bookstore (yes, they still exist) or work for a pittance at Barnes & Noble, you’ll have a vital new cornerstone to your resume. Take a couple of minutes to read this article of quotes from publishing executives who got their start as booksellers. Or check out this Tumblr post by a Hachette recruiter, who informs applicants that “one of the most valuable experiences you can have is to work at a bookstore.” To summarize, these positions may not pay that well in the short term, but will make you an immediate expert in customer service and ideally expose you to a network of authors and literary agents that come to promote books in your store. You will become acclimated to speaking about books and discover first-hand through conversations with customers which books are popular with different demographics. Acquisitions editors need to know their projected readers’ interests and wants before deciding which novels to purchase, and sales reps have to work with bookstores and booksellers regularly.

Freelancing: Try working for a professional copyediting site like oDesk or get a membership with the Copyeditors Freelance Association, as a way to sharpen your reading/writing/grammar skills. Or try something with less pressure, like offering to edit your friends’ papers or your creative writing classmates’ novels. It’s inevitable that you are going to have a semester where you couldn’t track down a job or internship, so use freelancing as a way to keep your skills sharp and possibly make some money on the side. Rest assured that freelancing is definitely something you can and should put on a resume, especially if you can build up a client base or get positive reviews for your work.

Make Your Own Publication: If you can’t find a literary magazine, journal, or newspaper that interests you at your school, then try making your own! A lot of colleges have student officers or associations that listen to proposals for new publications or projects and can grant funding for your dream project. There is no better way to show your healthy initiative, business acumen, and skills than to bring in a physical copy of something you helped to make and co-found or co-manage; even if it fails spectacularly, it’s still a great story to discuss. My Emerson classmates and I received funding from my school to create and print a lit mag this past spring, and in each interview since then the interviewer has always seemed impressed by this fact.

Technology/Skills to Learn

HTML/CSS: Publishers have fully embraced the eBook phenomenon, which means there are a lot of jobs out there for editors who know code well enough to turn their books into ePub and Mobi (Kindle) formats. At the same time, publishers are struggling to figure out issues like selling books directly to consumers to sidestep Amazon, which means anyone who knows how to work with websites will also find a home. So whether this means taking college classes in coding or hand-coding a personal website to show off on a business card or resume, you should find a way to acclimate yourself to this technology.

Adobe Creative Suite (InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator, Dreamweaver): If your college offers free downloads of Adobe, take advantage of the offer immediately or you’ll regret it (like I do…..). Most publishers rely heavily on the latest version of creative suite, and will expect you to be at least familiar, if not proficient, in it. And I’m not simply talking about jobs for designing print layouts or covers. I’ve used InDesign during an editorial internship and for a lit mag, Photoshop during multiple positions including my current eBook production internship, and Dreamweaver to design an eBook for a work sample. Try taking computer classes like the ones found on Lynda.com that focus on individual Adobe platforms.

Chicago Manual of Style (or AP for magazines): Sorry, everyone who grew up learning MLA or APA style, you need to scrub out your brains and get used to CMS. If you are at all interested in doing freelance copyediting or proofreading for a publisher, you need to be an expert with the CMS style guide. In lieu of a class on the subject, there are online tests available for you to practice your grammar and knowledge of the English language.

Microsoft Office: You might roll your eyes when you see this in a job description, but proficiency in using Word styles and Excel formulas can be an important way to prepare yourself for an entry-level job.

Informational Interviews and Learning About the Industry

Informational interviews are an excellent way to make contacts with people at a publishing house for which you’re interested in working, even if you are thousands of miles away from New York. They aren’t, however, a guaranteed way of getting a job or even being considered for one when a position opens, so you shouldn’t do them for that reason alone. Instead, find a way to get in contact with someone in a job you find intriguing and see if they’ll give you 20-30 minutes of their time. I’ll do a full blog post later that goes into greater detail about these interviews, but for now, suffice to say that they’re a great way of knowing what you’re getting into with the job and what you still need to learn or get better at before you try applying with your favorite publishing imprint.

Another thing to keep in mind is that editorial jobs are the most competitive of any publishing jobs by far. But if you study the book creation process, you’ll see that there are a lot of entry level positions—acquisitions, production, eBook production, development, domestic/international subsidiary rights, contracts, permissions, marketing, publicity—for you to explore. The more you know about this industry, the more likely you’ll find the job that is the best fit for you. This is more about the “objective” of your resume than your actual experience: would you be happy in more than one position, and do you want to make yourself qualified in several areas to become a multifaceted candidate with management potential, or put all of your effort into one area?

Graduate Publishing Programs

There aren’t too many publishing programs nationwide. The main programs that I’ve heard of: EmersonNYU and Pace University in New York, George Washington University in D.C., and Portland State University in Oregon. You could also include Columbia’s summer program on this list as a microcosm of what these graduate programs provide.

You absolutely don’t need an MA or MS to succeed in publishing, and plenty of people have succeeded without it. But during my time at my Emerson program, I had the chance to work for two different, award-winning literary magazines in Ploughshares (professional) and Redivider (student-run), I learned how to use all of the applications above and took coding and copyediting courses, and I was given an excuse (papers) to conduct informational interviews with writers, editors, and publishers of my choosing, both remotely and in person during a school-sponsored trip to NY to visit publishers like Simon & Schuster, Hachette, and Penguin.

This post wasn’t meant to be one big advertisement for Emerson; rather, it should show you that the program simply facilitated what I could have been learning and experiencing on my own if I had known what I needed to do to get my dream job. You should choose whether you feel comfortable learning about publishing and technology on your own time, or whether you would rather attend a program that can teach you what you need and want to know.

Conclusion

Many people want to work in the book industry, and there are a lot of editorial opportunities out there for anyone to take advantage of. So it’s never too soon to start making yourself as well-rounded and unique a candidate as possible to distinguish yourself from the pack. This means making yourself technologically savvy, giving yourself a multitude of experiences with different publications to discuss during an interview, connecting with as many people as possible via interviews and social media (read: LinkedIn), and maybe joining a graduate or certification program that will officially sanction your publishing knowledge.

My next newbie-publishing posts will probably cover informational interviews, or maybe I’ll just throw out a giant list of links starting with Publisher’s Weekly of every website you should be reading to stay informed about the industry, something that is very important when it comes to interviewing for an entry-level position. And if I’ve missed some great ways to get editorial or publishing experience, feel free to throw them into the comments below.

Thanks for reading!

Preparing for a Publishing Internship Interview, and Follow-Up Questions You Should Ask Your Employer

Getting an actual interview with your dream publisher, or with any publisher, lit mag, newspaper, etc., is more than half the battle. Without fully knowing what the internship coordinator, editorial assistant, or HR rep looks for in a cover letter, getting a callback could be likened to winning the lottery—a lottery with decent odds, admittedly, but still leaving too much up to chance. Now, at the interview section of the process, you have much more control over making a good impression and feeling out what the interviewer wants from his or her intern.

In short, don’t let your upcoming interview stress you out. Most interviews follow a very similar, easy structure that this blog post will help you to prepare for:

  1. General questions about your publishing goals and background
  2. Questions about your traits, problem solving, attitude, and likes
  3. Logistical details and questions about start dates and dress codes that you should resist the urge to focus on;
  4. A Q&A period about your prospective position and publisher, a deceptively important opportunity to reveal things about yourself.

Interview formats

Interviews range in duration and style of questioning depending on the format of the interview. You may be questioned by the internship coordinator, the editorial/ production/ marketing assistants directly above you, an HR representative, or an assortment of each. See if you can discern from their emails—or directly ask if an in-person interview is preceded by a preliminary phone interview—the format of the interview and who will be questioning you, as this information can be extremely helpful in determining how to prepare for an interview.

For my seasonal (3 month) internship interviews, the number of interviewers ranged from 1-3, but the number didn’t matter. One person, usually your eventual supervisor, will take the lead on the majority of questions, while the remainder may have a question or two but generally aren’t as prepared or aware of your qualifications.

For a year-long salaried position I applied for, I ended up speaking with a dozen or so people in a three-round interview with editorial assistants, editorial department heads, and their HR representative. Fortunately, this interview was simply a longer, repetitious version of shorter interviews, with almost entirely the same questions coming up in each segment of the interview.

General Questions

Be ready for variations on the standard questions that come up in almost every interview:

i. Describe your interest in book publishing. Why are you interested in a career in editing?

ii. How have your past experiences/internships prepared you for this position? How are you qualified for this position?

iii. Why are you interested in this internship/working for publisher name here specifically?

iv. How are you a good fit for this position/company?

v. What do you hope to get out of this position?

The first two to three questions of an interview are usually these, so these questions will decide the first impression you make on the interviewer. I can’t help you in terms of avoiding nervousness and exuding confidence, but I can advise you on the content of your responses.

First, try to strike a balance between why they’re a good fit for you and why you’re a good fit for them. These questions naturally invite self-centered answers, but don’t spend too much time explaining how this internship will advance your career or why X publisher has always seemed so interesting (though this personal touch is still important). If the internship listing/webpage had a list of everyday tasks, describe how your work for them will supplement the skills you already have—a chance to praise yourself while showing your awareness of what the job entails and what you will and won’t need to learn on the job.

Similarly, if the internship is in the same field as past positions on your resume, explain how old experiences prepare you for this position while explaining how this position is somehow different or better for your career than past jobs. And most importantly, try to describe your general interest in the profession as well as your specific interest in the position. If you explain your interest in a career in editing or your love of the publishing industry, you show that the position is more than a line on your resume, which makes you a more attractive candidate.

Memorizing Anecdotes

You will then likely be asked two styles of questions: describe a situation at work that shows certain qualities or problem solving, and state certain accomplishments you are proud of. I lump these categories together because in either case you should have a selection of anecdotes ready to answer such questions as the following:

  1. What is your greatest strength/weakness? Don’t just state a quality for each. For your strength, give a short anecdote that exemplifies your strength. If you choose leadership, be sure you have something on your resume that actually tested your mettle. For your weakness, describe a moment where you realized you had a weakness in that area and how you are now working to fix that weakness, or are at least aware of it. They will appreciate the honest assessment, particularly if it is an area they specified on the job description like organization, multi-tasking, customer service, independence, or other common qualities you feel uncomfortable with.
  2. Describe a moment you dealt with a difficult supervisor/colleague/customer and how you solved the problem. This question has almost always come up for me, especially in editorial positions where my job is to email or speak with authors on a regular basis. Have an anecdote ready for each of these if possible, but be sure to focus more on your patience and graciousness rather than how much you hated your boss or hate annoying customers—unless the story is hilarious or absurd, in which case draw it out! It never hurts to show you have a sense of humor about these things, and your interviewer will likely empathize and have similar stories from their own time in your position. I’ve also had two different internships give me writing prompts asking me to respond to an angry customer to diffuse the situation, one as part of the application and one during the interview.
  3. Describe a time you worked as a team/led a team. You should hopefully have a good anecdote from a non-work source for this type of question, like participating with a literary magazine, community service group, school group project (that has to do with publishing, hopefully), or other examples.
  4. Describe a time that you had to multitask/prioritize; describe how you plan or organize your day. This question speaks for itself. Basically, your employer wants to know that you can handle the pressure of having multiple jobs to get done at once and that you know how to prioritize, both at work and in your everyday life.
  5. What are you most proud of/what is your greatest accomplishment? As I mentioned in my very first post about what not to say during an internship interview, be careful about what you would choose here, and have something prepared. It doesn’t necessarily have to pertain to publishing, though it certainly doesn’t hurt. For instance, if you describe how proud you were to have your name on the masthead of your college’s lit mag, you can use that to segue back into your passion for publishing. However, you can certainly use something else so long as it shows qualities that your employer will want in his or her intern.

Miscellaneous Questions

  • What are some of your favorite books/authors?
  • What blogs/newspapers/publishing websites do you read?
  • What do/did you study in school and how did it prepare you for this position?
  • What writing experience do you have?
  • What is your dream job/where do you want to be in five years?
  • Are there any others you’ve run into that I’ve missed? If so, feel free to post them in the comments and I’ll add them!

Questions to Ask Your Employer

For a good summary of the types of questions that impress interviewers, check out this thorough article by College Magazine. But to summarize, think hard about what you need to know during the interview phase. Some typical questions you might ask—what is the dress code, what will my average day consist of, when will I have your answer, can I take the internship for college credit—don’t tell the interviewer anything about you and bog things down. The interviewer may give you some of that information later anyway, and you can always figure out the office dress code and work culture on the job, or email about college credit or other logistics.

Instead, take the time to focus on the two people in the room, as well as the people that have been there before. Ask about how this will benefit your future career, specifically if this will prepare you for an entry-level position. As a follow-up, ask what other interns moved on to do, to see if they have found the kind of success you are looking for. Then feel free to shift the flow of the conversation toward the interviewer: how did they get involved in publishing/this publisher, and what is their specific job at the company? The above article notes that “interesting questions relating to background or questions showing that a candidate has researched and done his or her homework demonstrate passion and determination…[and]only a handful of people…[ask] personal questions.” Shining the spotlight on your future boss will show you the type or person you might work for, and allows them the chance to talk about themselves while giving you some breathing room as the interview winds down.

Conclusion

All of this information collected together may appear daunting, and there’s no way to predict every single question that a given editor will care to ask about. But that doesn’t matter as much as you simply coming into the interview with these key assets: a clear self-appraisal of what you want out of this internship and your future career, knowledge about the publisher and its books/authors, a series of personal stories that show your skills, experience, growth, and areas for improvement, and some questions that show your initiative and priorities.

I hope this was helpful for you! My next non-current events post will cover how to get relevant, non-internship publishing experiences outside of publishing hub cities like New York and Boston that you can use for those pesky anecdotal/situational questions.

Thanks for reading!

HarperCollins’s Direct Sales Plan: Necessary or Futile?

If you can’t negotiate with Amazon, beat them at their own game of sales, or remove them from the equation entirely. Many industry experts and would-be experts like me have bandied this solution about, one where publishers will sell directly to consumers on their website. Now, HarperCollins is trying this strategy on a revamped website that sells both print and e-books directly to consumers, according to Publisher’s Weekly. While there will be some sales, most books will be sold at full price. The website does provide links to major retailers like Amazon and B&N, however.

I discussed this solution in a previous article, where I noted that publishers could improve their social media and marketing by having greater circulation on their websites, particularly considering most visitors to their sites are job-seekers. I also questioned whether publishers would be able to provide appealing prices to consumers when confronted with Amazon’s predatory loss-leader pricing. If consumers are going into bookstores only to buy the books they find on Amazon, you can bet that they will find it even easier to search for books on the publishers’ sites and then open Amazon in a second tab from the comfort of one’s home.

HarperCollins is clearly wary of the latter problem, which is why they are providing links to the Amazon page; it knows that it currently cannot compete with Amazon on pricing and that consumers may not end up buying their books on the site, but they want readers to at least start their search on the HarperCollins website.

The comments on the Pub Weekly article provide an apt summary of some of the problems of HarperCollins’s strategy:

  • Multiple readers are treating this strategy as the final nail in the coffin for indie bookstores, since publishers are trying to cut out the middle man distributors through direct sales. Frankly, I don’t believe that the website in its fledgling state will have that significant of an effect–people who shop at indie bookstores aren’t going to abandon them to use this website, and people who buy books online do not bring their business to physical retailers anymore anyway. What does matter is the abrupt shift in the public image of publishers, from the bullied, struggling victims of Amazon to callous, bottom-line businesses abandoning their indie partners to fend for themselves.
  • Some argue that publishers don’t know a single thing about retail and should leave this area to their long-time partners (an argument that ties into the idea that they are abandoning indie booksellers rather than exploring or expanding their options). I would argue that this argument also connects to the arguments made by self-published authors and their fans, who usually lambast publishers for being out of touch when it comes to marketing their books properly. People are losing trust in publishers to market non-major titles or properly exploit social media, and this website provides an opportunity for them to redeem their stodgy image by marketing smaller or backlist titles; or, conversely, to focus on major titles and reinforce that reputation.
  • Finally, some commenters mock the very idea that consumers care about publishers and will buy books based on something other than authors, genres, or staff/Amazon recommendations. To be honest, this assessment is fair to apply to most major publishers. Small publishers and imprints can create a focused website surrounding a certain genre or subgenre of literature, but a major house with dozens of imprints lacks a focused theme to bring in consistent readership. I would personally argue that HarperCollins would do better to focus first on revamping its imprints’ websites, then bringing readers from these disparate sites to one hub retail site for HarperCollins. These publishers are making themselves “too big to fail” but in doing so they are possibly diluting their brands from having much focus or meaning.

I think print-on-demand, direct sales from exciting publisher websites are a necessary part of publishers’ futures if they want to shake off their dependance upon Amazon; moreover, I believe this strategy does not in any way signal the death of bookstores, because publishers love having as many sales options as possible and would bend over backwards to keep these channels open. By creating backup sales options, they give themselves more negotiating power and increase profitability for books in general, which could in turn mean the return of more risky midlist and experimental titles.

I still believe that publishers have a long way to go before reaching that stage, however. I have to admit that I like some of the features on HarperCollins’s site, like search categories for series of books or award winners (i.e. Hugo, Nebula, ALA, etc. for sci-fi/fantasy). Still, I think publishers need to do more to get other people on their site, not just publishing nerds like me. Maybe publishers that do self-publishing services could make some of the best-rated self-published titles available through direct retail to boost circulation from authors. Or perhaps make a greater effort to support interactive author websites that link back to the publisher. Or some other strategies I haven’t thought of; anyone have any marketing ideas to get regular people interested in publishing websites?

Thanks for reading!

What the Hachette-Perseus Merger Means for the Publishing Industry and You

The Hachette-Perseus Books Group merger is generating more buzz than it might normally—considering the 18-year-old Perseus is not as familiar a household name as Penguin or Random House—because journalists are connecting the merger to Hachette’s contract fight with Amazon. The New York Times article about the deal is titled “Hachette Adds Heft to Battle Amazon,” for instance.

But this deal marks a continued trend in the publishing industry that anyone interested in a publishing or writing career should watch closely, and maybe warily.

The trend I’m speaking of is one of consolidation, the most famous example being the Penguin Random House partnership last summer. Up until that point, most consolidation occurred when big publishers bought smaller pub houses and incorporated them as imprints: examples of this include Hachette buying Little, Brown in 2006 or HarperCollins’s recent purchase of Harlequin. But now the major publishers are reaching the size of giants, with PRH controlling 250 separate imprints and the other Big 4 trying to catch up. For instance, there are long-standing rumors since late 2012 that Simon & Schuster and HarperCollins were considering a similar merger to match PRH, and early this year Forbes reported that the talks may still be ongoing.

Now Hachette has purchased Perseus, which itself is the largest distributor of books in the nation, especially for small and medium-sized publishers. How did it become the largest? Through consolidation. In this interesting piece by the co-founder of indie publisher Melville House, Dennis Johnson describes Perseus’s purchase of Consortium and Publishers Group West, which gave Perseus control over 80% of indie publishers’ book distribution. Johnson describes a period of turmoil where books got lost while transferred between warehouses and many staff and warehouse members were laid off. Some publishers like Melville House ended up taking their business elsewhere, the Johnson claims that those that remained only stayed because they couldn’t afford to leave.

You cannot necessarily trust Johnson’s impartiality on the subject without hearing Perseus’s side of the story, and maybe those who stayed with Perseus would deny any dissatisfaction with their distributor. But you can’t deny that big mergers are a tumultuous time where jobs and livelihoods are put on the line, and things could easily go wrong.

Now Perseus’s warehouses belong to Hachette’s distributor, Ingram. Does this mean another period of turmoil for the indie publishers? Ingram’s CEO denies this—this Publisher’s Weekly article states that Ingram has “no plans to make major changes to the Perseus distribution operations.” It could be that the name on the door is changing, but that the business will remain the same. It could also be that Ingram will bring new policies that will change how these warehouses operate. But I don’t know enough about warehousing to make an informed comment on the likelihood or repercussions of this eventuality.

The small publishers who used Perseus as a client do know, however, and they’re worried. In a Publishing Perspectives article, one publisher at a conference expressed shock at the news, stating, “Well, looks like we just became [a] smaller [priority].” Another worried about having to learn to use a new computer system.

The consensus?

Each of the publishers expressed their concerns about their list and whether or not they would get the attention they deserve within a bigger organization. Some lamented the loss of yet another independent publishing institution to the deep pockets of a conglomerate. Most grieved the likely layoffs.

Doom and gloom from small publishers who simply don’t like their massive counterparts controlling their distribution, or legitimate fears about the compression of the industry and its jobs into a few “too big to fail” entities? It certainly appears from the article that the publishers like both Perseus and Ingram individually, but dislike them as a merged business, simply because it makes it less likely that individual clients will see their needs addressed.

That same principle may apply to the Perseus imprints that Hachette now controls. When a publishing group controls dozens or even hundreds of imprints, it makes any individual imprint more expendable should it become unprofitable. However, this system also allows the most successful imprints to provide financial insurance for the other imprints in the group; thus, arms of a publishing house that are temporarily struggling can have a few years of unprofitability without being forced to close shop. Thus, it is unclear whether the consolidation of major publishers will keep imprints and jobs afloat or make those jobs expendable in a crisis.

Conclusions

What does the consolidation of publishing houses mean for writers? Less traditional publishing options. In a New York Times piece describing the Penguin Random House merger, the author noted that “the persistent gripe of writers and agents” is that “companies either forbid (as at Penguin) or restrict (at Random House) their constituent imprints from bidding against one another for a manuscript.” Literary agents used to have dozens more options to sell their author’s manuscripts, but now have the five (maybe four soon) major publishing houses and some smaller competitors. That means less competition and fewer chances to demand higher advances for manuscripts. Self-publishing and freelance publishing services are becoming highly visible and profitable around the same time that publishers are continuing to grow and coalesce into a few massive entities. Publishers need to make clear that their services will not suffer and that each author matters when they are trying to service thousands of authors at a time, a tough sell to make.

What does this mean for readers? Ostensibly nothing, since Perseus’s imprints should continue to operate as they did before the buyout, which means the same quality of manuscripts and editing. But the above NY Times piece asserts that merged imprints lose their originality and focus and take on the acquisition strategies and mentality of their parent company. That could mean an overall reduction in the breadth and diversity of titles available for readers through traditional publishing avenues. It also means that, for readers, publishing imprints become more interchangeable or indistinguishable from one another. Publishers with 250 imprints may end up diluting their brands, which would hurt readers and publishers alike. With publishers becoming so massive, they need to focus on strengthening their individual imprints’ brands so that they still mean something to readers.

What does this mean for you, the current and future editors, eBook production experts, publicists, etc.? As I stated above, I really can’t be certain if this will lead to greater or fewer jobs in the long run. Nor is it certain if publishers will begin to lose their originality in the face of the overwhelming size and power of the companies they work for. Personally, I believe that the dedicated publishing professionals in these organizations would not let anything happen to sabotage their efforts in creating great books. But these concerns remain valid, and I hope that the publishers who are merging take these concerns seriously, for the sake of their employees, authors, and readers.

Do you think these super-conglomerates are bad for the industry, or just the natural progression in the face of Amazon and self-publishing competition? Feel free to leave your thoughts in the comments, and thanks for reading!

As a disclaimer, I have an upcoming fall internship with Perseus(/Hachette, I guess?), but I tried to remain as objective and analytical as possible without prejudice toward my future employer.

With ALA approaching, how will libraries compete in the ebook market?

A recent PW article outlined a recent breakfast meeting between librarians and publishers at Random House, where speakers discussed the next step for libraries now that all major trade publishers have begun “participating in the library e-book market.”

Yet librarians know they need to do more to make their services competitive, whether with subscription services like Oyster, regular retailers like Amazon and B&N, self-publishing, and even pirating. At the upcoming ALA meeting, they will discuss whether the solution falls with a better user interface or with improved publisher cooperation.

The above PW article summarizes best the positions of the parties involved, but for those who don’t want to tear themselves away, here’s a quick summary:

  • Many librarians say that the largest demands of patrons is for recent frontlist titles, and publishers have notoriously put limits on the number of times books can be lent or the number allowed to be checked out at once without paying for another e-copy; thus, they want publishers to provide better terms for these books so that patrons don’t see the long wait for new books and decide to immediately go elsewhere. In other words, they want to improve on the current system.
  • Biblioboard founder Mitchell Davis argued that, “Instead of spending money on a limited number of frontlist e-book titles, generating long waits in hold queues and patron dissatisfaction, why not concentrate limited resources on building a better user experience, based on the library’s ‘long tail’ collections?” He feels that librarians should adopt a model for users that have gotten used to Netflix-style systems: one with “unlimited, multiuser access to backlist works” that would in turn lead to more frontlist sales of the latest sequels.

Libraries are one of the last guaranteed avenues for print book sales, and publishers know this, which is ostensibly why they have begun to engage more with libraries to sustain their success. But librarians can easily make the case that their support is too conservative, and that their partnership must expand for both sides to truly benefit. Libraries need to go digital in order to maintain its legitimacy and its funding, and eBook support from publishers is a vital cornerstone of the future of libraries. But opinions are divided on where that support should go.

In terms of the above arguments, I would first note that there is already a “Netflix for books” in Oyster,  a monthly subscription service that has partnerships with HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster, Perseus Books Group, Wiley, Chronicle, and others for a total of over 500,000 titles, according to PW. The service has attained the cooperation of publishers by promising them what they need most, and what most distributors like Amazon keep tightly secret: data. Oyster can tell publishers about the likes, dislikes, and reading habits of their consumers, including reading speed, when, where, and how often they read, and what type of device they prefer to read on.

Libraries can provide that same information. Or more specifically, the third party applications like Axis 360, Blio, and BiblioBoard that libraries rely on to distribute eBooks and audiobooks to their patrons. Major publishers will likely make more of their backlist titles freely available to libraries if they had assurances from these providers that user data would be made available to them, just as Oyster provides it. I am uncertain whether it would be publishers or librarians who would pay for this enhanced access, or if the digital providers would be willing to disclose the information at all.

But do library users go to public libraries for an Oyster experience, or for recent titles? Jeff Jankowski, VP of Midwest Tape, argued at the BEA that libraries can only provide better services if they discard the outdated “’video store’ model of one user, one copy” that publishers demand with eBooks. Publishers would likely counter with the simple economic truth that eBook sales for frontlist books would drop significantly if readers discovered that all eBooks were available without any delay at libraries. Librarians might counter-argue that these free books will increase sales down the line, and readers could easily pirate eBooks rather than buy them if they can’t be found for free legitimately.

I for one hope that the ALA expands upon the Random House breakfast by discussing experimental plans to keep libraries as a legitimate, profitable sales channel for publishers, ways to improve library UI for eBooks, and the possibility of reader data collection with third party library platforms. Whether or not conservatism or boldness will prevail depends in my mind on whether one of the Big 5 publishers is willing to take the first step of making backlist eBooks freely available, setting an example for others to follow, or at least to watch closely for the economic results.

Do you think any hope for further cooperation is possible, or naive? Do you think publishers are right to be wary, or too conservative to take the necessary course of action? Feel free to comment below, and thanks for reading!